This is why Dr. Kioni Dudley cannot support extending the rail beyond the A’ala Park area.
The last five stops and Ala Moana will be underwater. Putting the rail through a swamp is a waste of money.
Figure 8. Kakaako District: a) areas shaded in blue lie at or below 32 cm (1 ft) above modern high tide; b) areas shaded in blue lie at or below 0.9 m (3 ft) above modern high tide. These areas are especially vulnerable to sea level rise impacts. Along the shoreline, impacts will include beach erosion and wave overtopping with increased frequency and magnitude. At inland areas, impacts will include reduced drainage, groundwater rise, and flooding of low lands. (CREDIT: University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group)
In figures 7 and 8, innumerable small areas mapped in blue identify the portion of our communities that fall below high tide later in the century. Those lands that are closer to the ocean are highly vulnerable to marine inundation by high waves, storms, tsunami, and extreme tides. Basements may flood, ground floors splashed by wave run-up, and seawater may come out of the storm drains onto most of the streets within 5 to 8 blocks of the ocean from Honolulu to Waikiki.
An important process that accompanies SLR is the greater penetration that high swell events have across low-lying beaches and the adjoining coastal plain. The coastal plain of Hawaii is where most of our housing tracts, roads, economic centers, and infrastructure are located. These coastal plains lie at a fixed elevation above mean sea level. That difference in elevation between mean sea level and the coastal plains is shrinking every day that sea level rises. Modeling of wave overtopping suggests that when high winter swell arrives on an ocean that is 30 to 60 cm (1 to 2 ft) above modern sea level (MHHW), the inundation by the highest wave of the year will reduce from rare events (e.g., 25 year high wave) to annual inundation (e.g., the annual high wave; Figure 9). That is, today inundation is a rare event with a probability of occurring only every 25 yrs or so but when sea level is 2 ft higher, it may occur every year.